It is the engineer's job to work alongside the owner(s), contractor(s), and all other parties involved to produce an ideal product that suits everyone's needs. What is the difference between Tender and Contract Documents? Floors are commonly installed as the beams are erected. Some parking garages are constructed using structural steel columns and reinforced concrete slabs. Having made the important decisions on the building form at the concept design stage, in essence, the developed design stage provides more detailed information on the building structure, cladding and services, and the technical design stage creates the working details. Concrete building structures often meet code required fire-resistance ratings, as the concrete thickness over the steel rebar provides sufficient fire resistance. The form of the structure will strongly influence the details employed. Steel never turns into a liquid below this temperature. (Images courtesy of Kloeckner Metals UK Westok). Fig.11: End Plate Beam to Beam Connection. This is due to the much larger volume required for a structural concrete member to support the same load; steel, though denser, does not require as much material to carry a load. The striking visual impact of these iconic structures is possible because steel is fabricated in a nearly limitless range of shapes, tapered forms, curves, colors, and finishes. Low-rise buildings distribute much smaller loads than high-rise structures, making concrete the economical choice. The steel manufacturing process shall be at the discretion of the steel producer. As a construction system, steel is lightweight, generates little waste, is fast, safe and cost effective and can be extended or adapted easily. Often interfaces with cladding, lifts, stairs and other key components are not known at the tendering stage, and so it is accepted that some level of design development is required under the contract. Bracings are used to resist lateral forced imposed on structure and it transfer lateral loads to the columns and then to the foundation. Not only do the floors systems support vertical applied loads but also they act like diaphragms and resist lateral loads through the use of bracings. Additional information such as the design forces in the connections may be added for later use by the steelwork contractor. Main articles: Fabrication, Modelling and analysis. Regarding cladding of steel frame structure, various types of cladding such as brick cladding and sheet cladding can be used to protect the inside area of the structure. If a structure could be constructed using either material, the cheapest of the two will likely control. [4], In the case of steel products such as sections, bolts and fabricated steelwork the CE Marking demonstrates that the product complies with the relevant harmonized standard.[5]. Although additional fireproofing is not often applied to concrete building structures, it is sometimes used in traffic tunnels and locations where a hydrocarbon fuel fire is more likely, as flammable liquid fires provides more heat to the structural element as compared to a fire involving ordinary combustibles during the same fire period. [citation needed]. Our website,, offers constant original coverage of the interior design and architecture worlds, new shops and products, travel destinations, art and cultural events, celebrity style, and high-end real estate as well as access to print features and images from the AD archives. Examples of the use of partial and full concrete encasement to an H profile and concrete-filled circular hollow sections are shown. This can be obtained by notching the top flange of the secondary beam as shown in Figure-10 and Figure-11.

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