[1] They were distinguished mostly by the size and colour of their manes and of their skins. The long muscular tail was similar to that of a kangaroo. [19] Others followed the classification proposed by Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, recognizing two subspecies including one in Africa. [118] Lions gorge themselves and eat up to 30 kg (66 lb) in one session;[81] if it is unable to consume all of the kill, it rests for a few hours before continuing to eat. This result indicates that the taxonomic position of lions in Central Africa may require revision. [9][35][36] Southeastern Ethiopia is therefore considered a genetic admixture zone between Central and East African lions. [151] Both male and female lions may be ousted from prides to become nomads, although most females usually remain with their birth pride. Canids possessed elongated skulls, while cats tend to possess foreshortened ones. [156] Crippled lions and cubs may fall victim to hyenas and leopards or be trampled by buffalo or elephants. In addition to an early description as a herbivore, "the species has been speculatively portrayed as a consumer of crocodile eggs, a hyaena-like scavenger, a melon specialist, a leopard-like predator that dragged prey into trees, a slow-to-medium-paced runner incapable of climbing, a terrestrial version of a cookie-cutter shark or raider of kangaroo pouches, and a bear-like super-predator". Increased hunting success appears to be an obvious reason, but this is uncertain upon examination; coordinated hunting allows for more successful predation but also ensures non-hunting members reduce per capita calorific intake. [130] A study in the Serengeti ecosystem revealed that lions killed at least 17 of 125 cheetah cubs born between 1987 and 1990. [57], Both males and females defend the pride against intruders, but the male lion is better-suited for this purpose due to its stockier, more powerful build. [13], While considered a powerful hunter, and a fierce predator, it has been theorized that due to its physiology Thylacoleo was, in fact, a slow runner, limiting its ability to chase prey. [85] Pairs are more frequent among related males who have been excluded from their birth pride. [218], The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Some of these "marsupial lions" were the largest mammalian predators in Australia of that time, with Thylacoleo carnifex approaching the weight of a small lion. [122], Lions tend to dominate cheetahs and leopards, steal their kills and kill their cubs and even adults when given the chance. By the late 19th century, it had been extirpated in most of Turkey. [254] The lion dance is a traditional dance in Chinese culture in which performers in lion costumes mimic a lion's movements, often with musical accompaniment from cymbals, drums and gongs. [7] Panthera is phonetically similar to the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara meaning 'pale yellow, whitish, white'. Lascaux inconnu. Breeding was continued in 1998 in the frame of an African lion Species Survival Plan. Cub mortality in particular is high. [10] They also had canines but they served little purpose as they were stubby and not very sharp. [8], Due to its unique predatory morphology, scientists repeatedly claim Thylacoleo to be the most specialised mammalian carnivore of all time. [243] The Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal is a famous sequence of Assyrian palace reliefs from c. 640 BC, now in the British Museum. [91] Interactions between prides and nomads tend to be hostile, although pride females in estrus allow nomadic males to approach them. [195] The establishment of a second, independent Asiatic lion population in Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Madhya Pradesh was planned but in 2017, the Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project seemed unlikely to be implemented. The lion-leopard clade was distributed in the Asian and African Palearctic since at least the early Pliocene. Males have broader heads and a prominent mane that grows downwards and backwards covering most of the head, neck, shoulders, and chest. Female lions stay closer to their natal pride. [173] Lions also use chemical and visual marking; males will spray and scrape plots of ground and objects within the territory. [5] The word lavi (Hebrew: לָבִיא‎) may also be related. [41], In the 19th and 20th centuries, lion type specimens were described on the basis of their mane size and colour. Genome-wide data of a wild-born historical lion sample from Sudan showed that it clustered with P. l. leo in mtDNA-based phylogenies, but with a high affinity to P. l. melanochaita. (Judg 14). In other East African cultures, it symbolizes laziness. Females had litters once in 23 months on average. [152] Lions of both sexes may be involved in group homosexual and courtship activities; males will also head-rub and roll around with each other before simulating sex together. [260] "Lion" was the nickname of several medieval warrior-rulers with a reputation for bravery, such as Richard the Lionheart. [67] The original male white lion from Timbavati in South Africa was also maneless. [215] The ultimate proof of a tamer's dominance and control over a lion is demonstrated by the placing of the tamer's head in the lion's mouth. [71] These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema. [175][176], The lion is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Their prey is usually in the range of 190–550 kg (420–1,210 pounds). The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal. Lions without a mane were observed in the Tsavo area. [55] Some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname. [44], Mane development is related to age: older males have more extensive manes than younger ones; manes continue to grow up to the age of four to five years, long after lions become sexually mature. They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults. [15], One major feature of Thylacoleo is its dentition. Between 1990 and 2004, lions killed more than 560 people in Tanzania, mostly during harvest season in crop fields and in areas where natural prey is scarce. [12] Fully grown, Thylacoleo carnifex would have been close to the same size as a jaguar. There is a growing consensus that the extinction of the megafauna was caused by progressive drying starting about 700,000 years ago (700 ka). [81], In Botswana's Chobe National Park, lions also prey on African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana). [245] Lions are frequently mentioned in the Bible; notably in the Book of Daniel in which the eponymous hero refuses to worship King Darius and is forced to sleep in the lions' den where he is miraculously unharmed (Dan 6). [188], The last refuge of the Asiatic lion population is the 1,412 km2 (545 sq mi) Gir National Park and surrounding areas in the region of Saurashtra or Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat State, India. They shared a common ancestor probably between 98,000 and 52,000 years ago. Thylacoleo however, is thought to have had substantially stronger muscle attachments and therefore a smaller brain. Wild-born lions were imported to American zoos from Africa between 1989 and 1995. Sea lions can move around 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) in water and at their fastest they can reach a speed of about 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). Narasimha, the man-lion, is one of ten avatars of the Hindu god Vishnu. Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between 2007 and 2015. [21] 186.55–225 kg (411.3–496.0 lb) in Southern Africa, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 01:17. [2] Two lion subspecies are now recognised:[1], Genome-wide data of a wild-born historical lion sample from Sudan clustered with P. l. leo in mtDNA-based phylogenies, but with a high affinity to P. l. melanochaita. According to the place where the fossils were discovered, the habitat would have appeared as dry, open areas with forest and woodland. [222], Lions do not usually hunt humans but some (usually males) seem to seek them out. They usually pull it down by the rump and kill by a strangling bite to the throat. Faeces of lions collected near waterholes in Hwange National Park also contained remains of climbing mice (Dendromus) and common mice (Mus). [177] Estimates of the African lion population range between 16,500 and 47,000 living in the wild in 2002–2004. Such measures contribute to mitigating human–lion conflict. [139] Lions do not mate at a specific time of year and the females are polyestrous. [108][109] In typical hunts, each lioness has a favoured position in the group, either stalking prey on the "wing", then attacking, or moving a smaller distance in the centre of the group and capturing prey fleeing from other lionesses. Lions spend much of their time resting; they are inactive for about 20 hours per day. [79] The last live lion in Iran was sighted in 1942 about 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Dezful,[80] although the corpse of a lioness was found on the banks of the Karun river in Khūzestān Province in 1944.

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